Advances in the Approximation of the Matrix Hyperbolic Tangent (License CC BY 4.0), J. Ibáñez, J.M. Alonso, J. Sastre, E. Defez, P.A. Alonso, *Mathematics* **2021**, *9*(11), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111219, Researchgate Link.

In this paper, we introduce two approaches to compute the matrix hyperbolic tangent. While one of them is based on its own definition and uses the matrix exponential, the other one is focused on the expansion of its Taylor series. For this second approximation, we analyse two different alternatives to evaluate the corresponding matrix polynomials. This resulted in three stable and accurate codes, which we implemented in MATLAB and numerically and computationally compared by means of a battery of tests composed of distinct state-of-the-art matrices. Our results show that the Taylor series-based methods were more accurate, although somewhat more computationally expensive, compared with the approach based on the exponential matrix. To avoid this drawback, we propose the use of a set of formulas that allows us to evaluate polynomials in a more efficient way compared with that of the traditional Paterson–Stockmeyer method, thus, substantially reducing the number of matrix products (practically equal in number to the approach based on the matrix exponential), without penalising the accuracy of the result.

# Category: Applications

## Simulation of harmonic oscillators on the lattice

Simulation of harmonic oscillators on the lattice, M.Tung, J. Ibáñez, E. Defez, J. Sastre, Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences 43(14), May 2020. Researchgate Link

This work deals with the simulation of a two‐dimensional ideal lattice having simple tetragonal geometry. The harmonic character of the oscillators give rise to a system of second‐order linear differential equations, which can be recast into matrix form. The explicit solutions which govern the dynamics of this system can be expressed in terms of matrix trigonometric functions. For the derivation we employ the Lagrangian formalism to determine the correct solutions, which extremize the underlying action of the system. In the numerical evaluation we develop diverse state‐of‐the‐art algorithms which efficiently tackle equations with matrix sine and cosine functions. For this purpose, we introduce two special series related to trigonometric functions. They provide approximate solutions of the system through a suitable combination. For the final computation an algorithm based on Taylor expansion with forward and backward error analysis for computing those series had to be devised. We also implement several MATLAB programs which simulate and visualize the two‐dimensional lattice and check its energy conservation.

## Boosting the computation of the matrix exponential

Boosting the computation of the matrix exponential, J. Sastre, J. Ibáñez, E. Defez, Appl. Math. Comput. in press, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.amc.2018.08.017,** ****Preprint**, **Matlab code expmpol.m**.

This paper presents new Taylor algorithms for the computation of the matrix exponential based on recent new matrix polynomial evaluation methods. Those methods are more efficient than the well known Paterson–Stockmeyer method. The cost of the proposed algorithms is reduced with respect to previous algorithms based on Taylor approximations. Tests have been performed to compare the MATLAB implementations of the new algorithms to a state-of-the-art Padé algorithm for the computation of the matrix exponential, providing higher accuracy and cost performances.

First article with an application of the new matrix polynomial evaluation methods from J. Sastre, Efficient evaluation of matrix polynomials, Linear Algebra Appl. 539, (2018) 229-250. With the new matrix polynomial evaluation methods, Taylor approximation methods are more efficient than Padé approximant based methods.

## Modelling acoustics on the Poincaré half-plane

Modelling acoustics on the Poincaré half-plane. Michael M. Tung. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics DOI10.1016/j.cam.2017.10.037

Abstract: Novel advances in the field of metamaterial research have permitted the engineering of devices with extraordinary characteristics. Here, we explore the possibilities in transformation acoustics to implement a model for the simulation of acoustic wave propagation on the Poincaré half-plane-the simplest model possessing hyperbolic geometry and also of considerable historical interest. We start off from a variational principle on the given spacetime manifold to find the design description of the model in the laboratory. After examining some significant geometrical and physical properties of the Poincaré half-plane model, we derive a general formal solution for its acoustic wave propagation. A numerical example for the evolution of the acoustic potential on a rectangular region of the Poincaré half-plane concludes this discussion.